Cancer Cells Die with Erythrose in Culture
All tested cancer cells die with Erythrose when Erythrose concentration reaches a threshold. Wang X and Wei Y 2010 “Erythrose kill cancer cell in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo” American Association for Cancer Research 101th Conference.
Cancer cells die in culture that means either the cells cannot live in the condition, or the cells are changed by the condition, the changed cells cannot live in the condition. Cell culture condition is designed for dividing cells. When cell division is stopped, the non-dividing cells cannot live in the condition. Dividing cells stop dividing either becoming dormant or differentiating to non-dividing cells.
Erythrose (C4H8O4) is a sugar, 2/3 of glucose (C6H12O6) with similar structure, and can be used for respiration to CO2 and H2O, no residue. Batt RD, Dickens F, Williamson DH. 1960. Tetrose metabolism 2. The utilization of tetroses and tetritols by rat tissues. Biochem J. 77:281-94.
Because cancer cells can live in low concentration of Erythrose media, and die in high concentration media. Therefore, the dividing cancer is not killed by Erythrose directly, but be changed (differentiate) in Erythrose media, the differentiated cells (non-dividing cells) cannot live in the media.
Erythrose - anti tumor without pathology damage in mice. Lili Liu, Tao Yi and Xia Zhao 2015. Antitumor effect of D-Erythrose in an abdominal metastatic model of colon carcinoma ONCOLOGY LETTERS 9: 769-773, 2015.
For normal cell lines (HUVEC and HDF) cultivation, up to 30mM, Erythrose is similar to glucose for cell number and cell death.
The effective concentration (~ 4mM) of Erythrose for cancer cell death in media is much lower than glucose in our body. Diabetes can tolerate 30mM blood glucose for days.
There is no difference in sugar metabolism of a mouse cell or a human cell. We can deliver effective Erythrose to any where in our body without damage normal, cancer cells die or differentiate to non-dividing cells without, with or with partial functions.
Cells, Cancer, and Respiration
Cells are basic block of our body, include dividing and non-dividing cells.
Non-dividing cells are formed by dividing cells. Normally, when our body is to grow, repair, or renew, dividing cells divide to form non-dividing cells. Otherwise, dividing cells stay dormant.
After dividing, a new cell can continue dividing, become dormant, or differentiate to a specialized cell, a non-dividing functional cell, to support body’s function, such as skin for protection, etc.
Dividing cells have no function, but form non-dividing cells. Without dividing cells, we can be alive, but not very long, because non-dividing functional cells age and die. Cell division is essential for our life to continue.
Cancer cells divide, may invade to other organs and divide there, but not form non-dividing functional cells for our body.
The contrast of cancer cell is normal dividing cell, not normal non-dividing cell. Normal non-dividing cell is not comparable to cancer.
The difference of cancer from normal dividing (normal proliferative) cell is that the normal dividing cell can be dormant, divide, or differentiate. Cancer cell can be dormant or divide, but not differentiate. Differentiated (non-dividing) cell is not cancer.
For a life essential organ, its functions depend on the number of functional cells, the number changes with dying and renewing cells. Cancer accelerates functional cell death. More damage needs more repair, and more cell division. Cancer may impair normal renew. Cancer could cause permanent damage. Cancer cells die ≠ recover.
Cancer is from and part of our body. The changes of cancer cell in genetics (DNA) and biochemical processes are much less than 0.1%. The flawed and damaged cancer cells do not differentiate.
All Cells Depend on Energy to Survive. Without Energy, Cells Die. There are two major energy processes in our body, respiration and fermentation. Glucose is universal fuel of our body. Respiration: Glucose à CO2 and H2O, mainly in Mitochondria. Fermentation: Glucose à lactate in Cytosol (cell plasma). Most cells in our body can obtain energy through both respiration and fermentation.
Differentiated (non-dividing) cells mainly depend on respiration. Dividing (both normal and cancer) cells mainly depend on fermentation. Not all cells mainly depending on fermentation divide. But all cells mainly depending on respiration do not divide. Increasing cellular respiration, cell division will be stopped.
In our cells, respiration mainly occurs in Mitochondria. Dividing cells (cancer and normal) mainly depend on fermentation. Mitochondria respiration is suppressed in dividing cells naturally.
Many aerobic bacteria have no mitochondria, but have respiration – Cytosolic Respiration.
Increase mitochondria and/or cytosolic respiration will stop cell division and initialize cell differentiation. Cancer cells, have mutations in DNA, are damaged and flawed comparing to normal cells. The flawed and damaged cancer cells have no adaption for increasing cellular respiration to die, or differentiate to nono-dividing cells with, with partial, or without any functions.
Glucose is universal fuel of our body. Cancer cells love sugar, and take more sugar than normal cells. Erythrose is a sugar, can increase cellular respiration. Cancer cells love to take Erythrose to stop dividing.
Batt RD, Dickens F, Williamson DH. 1960. Tetrose metabolism 2. The utilization of tetroses and tetritols by rat tissues. Biochem J. 77:281-94.
Wang X and Wei Y 2010 “Erythrose kill cancer cell in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo” American Association for Cancer Research 101th Conference.
Lili Liu, Tao Yi and Xia Zhao 2015. Antitumor effect of D-Erythrose in an abdominal metastatic model of colon carcinoma ONCOLOGY LETTERS 9: 769-773, 2015.
Erythrose interrupts cell viability test using MTT and MTS. Using Trypan blue for cell viability.